We think it plausible that effective and sustained reprisals, even in a low key, would have a substantial depressing effect upon the morale of Viet Cong cadres in South Vietnam. This is the strong opinion of CIA Saigon. It is based upon reliable reports of the initial Viet Cong reaction to the Gulf of Tonkin episode, and also upon the solid general assessment that the determination of Hanoi and the apparent timidity of the mighty United States are both major items in Viet Cong confidence.
The long-run effect of reprisals in the South is far less clear. It may be that like other stimulants, the value of this one would decline over time.
Indeed the risk of this result is large enough so that we ourselves believe that a very major effort all along the line should be made in South Vietnam to take full advantage of the immediate stimulus of reprisal policy in its early stages. Our object should be to use this new policy to effect a visible upward turn in pacification, in governmental effectiveness, in operations against the Viet Cong, and in the whole U.
It is changes in these areas that can have enduring long-term effects.
While emphasizing the importance of reprisals in the South, we do not exclude the impact on Hanoi. We believe, indeed, that it is of great importance that the level of reprisal be adjusted rapidly and visibly to both upward and downward shifts in the level of Viet Cong offenses. We want to keep before Hanoi the carrot of our desisting as well as the stick of continued pressure.
Most of the population in DR Congo lives in poverty. McGrath said he remembers clearly the sight of crews showing up in the first week of October with chisels to remove the bricks from the windows and allow a flow of air. I also really enjoyed Nha Trang further south , Hoi An, in the middle, about 30 mins from Danang, which has an airpot as well, and HCMC was also a fun place to check out for awhile. Russia then did the same. The would-be escapees were frustrated by the policy, but they obeyed.
We also need to conduct the application of the force so that there is always a prospect of worse to come. We cannot assert that a policy of sustained reprisal will succeed in changing the course of the contest in Vietnam. What we can say is that even if it fails, the policy will be worth it. At a minimum it will damp down the charge that we did not do all that we could have done, and this charge will be important in many countries, including our own. Beyond that, a reprisal policy--to the extent that it demonstrates U.
test4.expandit.io/xenophon-the-socratic-prince-the.php We must recognize, however, that that ability will be gravely weakened if there is failure for any reason in Vietnam. This general recommendation was developed in intensive discussions in the days just before the attacks on Pleiku. These attacks and our reaction to them have created an ideal opportunity for the prompt development and execution of sustained reprisals.
Conversely, if no such policy is now developed, we face the grave danger that Pleiku, like the Gulf of Tonkin, may be a short-run stimulant and a long-term depressant. We therefore recommend that the necessary preparations be made for continuing reprisals. The major necessary steps to be taken appear to us to be the following:. Such a catalogue should perhaps build on the foundation of an initial White Paper. Specifically, we should give a clear and strong signal to those now forming a government that we will be ready for this policy when they are.
A program of sustained reprisal, with its direct link to Hanoi's continuing aggressive actions in the South, will not involve us in nearly the level of international recrimination which would be precipitated by a go-North program which was not so connected. With her cooperation, the CIA and Office of Naval Intelligence decided to use her correspondence back to her husband as a way to communicate with the prisoners.
Her first letter included a Polaroid of her with a secret message sandwiched between the sheets of photographic paper.
It explained the process of using invisible ink to send messages to the CIA. He listed the other POWs with him and detailed the abuses inflicted on American prisoners there. Stockdale climbing out of an F-8 before his capture Photo by Stockdale Center. The new communication policy allowed the prisoners and the CIA to trade a wealth of information, so much so that the prisoners were actually able to assemble a small shortwave radio, which was eventually discovered during an inspection.
Massive reprisals from their captors followed, and thus the prisoners' leadership determined the retribution was too much and escape attempts should only be made with a " high likelihood of success and assurance of outside assistance. Stockdale in captivity DoD photo.
Members of the escaping POW group sent their plan to the U. Defense Secretary Melvin Laird approved the plan in January By May, everything was in place.
The sonic booms were a go. They never found any.
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