Living with a Long-term Illness: The Facts

Ageing and health
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Wash your hands regularly with soap and water to avoid transmitted bacteria, especially before touching your face and before eating. Stay at home and rest until you feel better if you have a respiratory infection, as rest improves healing. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease COPD is a long-term, progressive lung disease that makes breathing difficult. Chronic bronchitis and emphysema are types of COPD. In , about 64 million people around the world were living with COPD.

The best ways to prevent COPD are to stop smoking and to avoid secondhand smoke and other lung irritants.

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If you experience any COPD symptoms , getting treatment as soon as possible increases your outlook. Respiratory cancers include cancers of the trachea, larynx, bronchus, and lungs. The main causes are smoking, secondhand smoke, and environmental toxins. But household pollutions such as fuels and mold also contribute. A study reports that respiratory cancer accounts for about 4 million deaths annually. In developing countries, researchers project an to percent increase in respiratory cancers due to pollution and smoking.

Many Asian countries, especially India, still use coal for cooking. Solid fuel emissions account for 17 percent of lung cancer deaths in men and 22 percent in women. Other risk factors for these cancers include family history and exposure to environmental factors, such as diesel fumes. However, early detection can improve your outlook and reduce the symptoms of respiratory cancer.

Diabetes is a group of diseases that affect insulin production and use. Type 2 diabetes can be caused by a number of factors, including poor diet, lack of exercise, and being overweight. Adding more fiber to your diet can help with controlling your blood sugar.

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This book looks at the practical, emotional, and social problems shared by most people who suffer from a long-term illness, and suggests a. All long-term illnesses, whatever their diagnosis, have much in common. The difficulties and challenges that come with illness, and the strategies to overcome .

These include thinking, reasoning, and typical behavior. The disease starts off by causing mild memory problems, difficulty recalling information, and slips in recollection. Over time, however, the disease progresses and you may not have memory of large periods of time. One thing that may be helpful in reducing your risk of the disease is a heart-healthy diet.

Diarrhea is when you pass three or more loose stools in a day.

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If your diarrhea lasts more than a few days, your body loses too much water and salt. This causes dehydration, which can lead to death. Diarrhea is usually caused by an intestinal virus or bacteria transmitted through contaminated water or food.

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Diarrheal disease is the second top cause of death in children younger than 5 years. About , children die from diarrheal diseases each year. Good handwashing techniques can reduce the incidence of diarrheal diseases by 40 percent. Improved sanitization and water quality as well as access to early medical intervention can also help prevent diarrheal diseases. Tuberculosis TB is a lung condition caused by bacteria called Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

TB is one of the top causes of death in people who have HIV. The cases of TB have fallen 1. The goal is to end TB by This is commonly given to children.

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Cirrhosis is the result of chronic or long-term scarring and damage to the liver. The damage may be the result of a kidney disease, or it can be caused by conditions like hepatitis and chronic alcoholism. A healthy liver filters harmful substances from your blood and sends healthy blood into your body.

ps-fe-api.gsenergy.io/arts-entertainment-and-tourism.php As substances damage the liver, scar tissue forms. As more scar tissue forms, the liver has to work harder to function properly. Ultimately, the liver may stop working. Stay away from the behaviors that can lead to liver damage to help prevent cirrhosis. Long-term alcohol use and abuse is one of the leading causes of cirrhosis, so avoiding alcohol can help you prevent damage. Lastly, you can reduce the likelihood of contracting viral hepatitis by using protection during sex and by avoiding sharing anything that could have traces of blood.

This includes needles, razors, toothbrushes, and more. While deaths from some diseases have increased, those from more serious conditions have also decreased.

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Some factors, such as an increasing life span, naturally increase the incidence of diseases such as CAD, stroke, and heart disease. But many of the diseases on this list are preventable and treatable. As medicine continues to advance and prevention education grows, we may see a reduction in death rates from these diseases. A good approach to lowering your risk of any of these conditions is to live a healthy lifestyle with good nutrition and exercise. Avoiding smoking and drinking in moderation can also help. For bacterial or viral infections, proper handwashing can help prevent or reduce your risk.

Common bug bites are inflicted by mosquitos, fleas, ticks, bedbugs, lice, spiders, and others.

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While most bug bites cause only mild symptoms, like…. Explosive diarrhea is diarrhea in overdrive. The contractions of your bowels that help you pass feces become stronger and more forceful. Tuberculosis TB is a highly infectious disease that primarily affects the lungs. Largely thought of as a disease of the past, tuberculosis still….

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No more! Your waiting period for receiving benefits will affect your overall premium. When a teenager with a long-term illness tries to decrease or stop taking the prescribed medication without consulting his or her physician, this may reflect a normal adolescent desire to control one's own body. Adjusting to life after being held hostage or kidnapped. Dress smart for winter workouts Early bird or night owl? Ask your agent about add-on coverage so you know what to anticipate in the event of this scenario.

Yet the extent of these opportunities and contributions depends heavily on one factor: health. There is, however, little evidence to suggest that older people today are experiencing their later years in better health than their parents. While rates of severe disability have declined in high-income countries over the past 30 years, there has been no significant change in mild to moderate disability over the same period. If people can experience these extra years of life in good health and if they live in a supportive environment, their ability to do the things they value will be little different from that of a younger person.

If these added years are dominated by declines in physical and mental capacity, the implications for older people and for society are more negative. At the biological level, ageing results from the impact of the accumulation of a wide variety of molecular and cellular damage over time. This leads to a gradual decrease in physical and mental capacity, a growing risk of disease, and ultimately, death.

Chronic condition

While some 70 year-olds enjoy extremely good health and functioning, other 70 year-olds are frail and require significant help from others. Beyond biological changes, ageing is also associated with other life transitions such as retirement, relocation to more appropriate housing, and the death of friends and partners. In developing a public-health response to ageing, it is important not just to consider approaches that ameliorate the losses associated with older age, but also those that may reinforce recovery, adaptation and psychosocial growth.

Common conditions in older age include hearing loss, cataracts and refractive errors, back and neck pain and osteoarthritis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, diabetes, depression, and dementia. Furthermore, as people age, they are more likely to experience several conditions at the same time. Older age is also characterized by the emergence of several complex health states that tend to occur only later in life and that do not fall into discrete disease categories. These are commonly called geriatric syndromes. They are often the consequence of multiple underlying factors and include frailty, urinary incontinence, falls, delirium and pressure ulcers.

Geriatric syndromes appear to be better predictors of death than the presence or number of specific diseases. Yet outside of countries that have developed geriatric medicine as a specialty, they are often overlooked in traditionally structured health services and in epidemiological research.

These factors start to influence the ageing process at an early stage. The environments that people live in as children — or even as developing foetuses — combined with their personal characteristics, have long-term effects on how they age. Environments also have an important influence on the development and maintenance of healthy behaviours. Maintaining healthy behaviours throughout life, particularly eating a balanced diet, engaging in regular physical activity, and refraining from tobacco use all contribute to reducing the risk of non-communicable diseases and improving physical and mental capacity.

Behaviours also remain important in older age. Strength training to maintain muscle mass and good nutrition can both help to preserve cognitive function, delay care dependency, and reverse frailty. Supportive environments enable people to do what is important to them, despite losses in capacity. The availability of safe and accessible public buildings and transport, and environments that are easy to walk around are examples of supportive environments.

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Some 80 year-olds have physical and mental capacities similar to many 20 year-olds. Other people experience significant declines in physical and mental capacities at much younger ages. The diversity seen in older age is not random. The relationship we have with our environments is skewed by personal characteristics such as the family we were born into, our sex and our ethnicity, leading to inequalities in health.

A significant proportion of the diversity in older age is due to the cumulative impact of these health inequities across the life course. Public health policy must be crafted to reduce, rather than reinforce, these inequities. Older people are often assumed to be frail or dependent, and a burden to society.