Mapping Financial Sector Vulnerability in a Non-Crisis Country: 99

Inci Ms. Ötker
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  • Inci Ms. Ötker
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    Downes David Mr. Taal Engels Spaans. Boek, ebook of luisterboek? Boek Ebook. Engels Spaans 1. Data for this study were obtained from the rural Delta State of Nigeria through the principles and traditions of participatory research, which include Venn or institutional diagrams, transect walks, brainstorming, community risk mapping and historical timelines. The ST, on the other hand, will enable development practitioners to visualise the long-term consequences of the continued inability of the poor to maximise their livelihood assets.

    This, in turn, will facilitate the implementation of appropriate policy interventions to protect the crucial assets necessary for the rural poor to produce their food efficiently and sustainably.

    Keywords: asset vulnerability analytical framework; systems thinking; subsistence farmers; Delta State; Nigeria. Globally, climate change has been observed to escalate to unprecedented levels especially in the last two decades Moser ; Perez et al. Effectively and efficiently tackling issues of climate change, as Lazarus puts forward, is one of the most complex problems that the world will have to contend with. Consequently, studies have been conducted using various participatory methodologies to ascertain how vulnerable the agricultural practices of the rural poor in SSA are to both climatic rising temperatures and erratic rainfall patterns and non-climatic e.

    Participatory methodologies, as observed by Chambers , have been effective in illuminating both the climatic and non-climatic stressors confronting vulnerable people. This is because it provides a fertile platform for individuals to explicitly share their experiences regarding the ways in which their livelihood practices have been adversely affected by both climatic and non-climatic stressors. Despite the aforementioned methodologies being utilised to a great degree of success, Moser contends that they have either neglected or only implicitly illustrated how vulnerable the poor are from an asset-based perspective see Table 1.

    Source : Adapted from Moser, C.

    This is partly because the AVAF is a diagnostic tool for understanding the factors responsible for the erosion of the assets of an individual. Definition of the five fundamental assets or capital for individuals, households and communities. Sources : Bebbington, A. This is against the backdrop of the sustainable development goals SDGs — leaving no one behind — which emphasises, among other issues, the urgent need to meet the nutritional requirements of the poor.

    Thus, this will enable practitioners to identify the appropriate leverage points to inject decisive policy interventions aimed at significantly minimising the adverse effects of both climatic and non-climatic stressors, which can prevent the poor from maximising their asset portfolios during food production. Thus, the utilisation of the AVAF will enable development practitioners to effectively capture the ways in which social, economic, political and environmental factors erode the asset portfolio of the poor and undermine their ability to engage more effectively in food production Table 1.

    Designation addresses the important structural vulnerability that some important financial intermediaries not backed by the government sector are vulnerable to investor runs. Watts M. One Countrywide employee—who would later plead guilty to two counts of wire fraud and spent 18 months in prison—stated that, "If you had a pulse, we gave you a loan. This essentially places cash payments from multiple mortgages or other debt obligations into a single pool from which specific securities draw in a specific sequence of priority. Archived from the original on April 6, Retrieved February 13, Daily roundup for October 9,

    It is therefore not surprising to note that Ebhuoma and Simatele a have argued that until pro-poor policy interventions are geared towards strengthening the fundamental assets that play a pivotal role in the livelihood activities of the poor, the battle to outwit climatic impacts will remain a utopian fiction. Nonetheless, the use of the AVAF alone, we argue, may not comprehensively underline the interconnectedness and the complex ways in which the factors limiting the poor from maximising their asset portfolios undermine effective food production.

    As in the Indian folklore, about six blind men who touched an elephant and reached contrasting conclusions about the meaning of the entire object according to the part they felt Nguyen et al. As documented by Maani and Cavana , ST offers a holistic way of appreciating all dimensions of a complex problem and enables the formation of effective long-term management strategies. Thus, the application of ST is crucial to identify leverage points where policy interventions can be injected in order to foster breakthrough outcomes, necessary to avert the inability for the poor to maximise their asset portfolios during food production.

    By tackling issues at its root cause, Bradbury and Koester et al. These communities, which are predominantly agrarian, are homogenous in nature arguably because of proximity to one another.

    Firstly, they are all oil-producing communities. Secondly, they speak the same local dialect Isoko and rely on indigenous knowledge systems IKS to predict future weather conditions. It is noteworthy to mention that the farmers in all three communities produce the same major crops — cassava and groundnut — annually, with the women being the primary drivers of food production. The men, on the other hand, usually engage in fishing, although some assist their wives on the field. Omohode argued that majority of the coastal communities in ISLGA were completely submerged without a visible trace of any building.

    This made the region to appear like an emergency ocean when surveyed from a distance. Thus, the aforementioned communities will be crucial to effectively understand the challenges faced by farmers as they attempt to employ their asset portfolios in order to attain household food security in the face of both climatic flooding and non-climatic stressors e. This is arguably because of stiff contestations that have occurred in the past between indigenes of these communities and Shell Petroleum, owing to grievances about the adverse impacts of oil exploration and exploitation activities on indigenes health and livelihood activities Adusei ; Ikelegbe The farmlands in Igbide and Uzere are generally low-lying, while Olomoro comprises both low- and high-lying farmlands.

    The low-lying farmlands in each of the study areas are usually inundated from mid-June, at the earliest, to the last week in October every year. Thus, while other crops — groundnut, pepper, yam, cocoyam and plantain — which mature within 4 months are cultivated anytime between the last week in February and March, cassava, which requires a minimum of 6 months to attain maturity, is usually planted in December and harvested between June and August each year on the low-lying farmlands through a strategy indigenously referred to as elelame follow-water-go.

    Elelame is embarked upon anywhere between the first and second weeks in December, immediately after the seasonal floodwater starts retreating the farmlands disproportionately. Immediately, some portions of the soil become visible and moist, the farmers start cultivating. As the floodwater continues to recede in other portions of the farmlands, the farmers employ similar cultivation strategy.

    At the commencement of the rainy season in the following year normally in June , the floodwater starts inundating the low-lying farmlands disproportionately from mid-June, although some participants argued that it starts occurring in July in other farmlands. Just before the floodwater begins to inundate the low-lying farmlands, the farmers start harvesting the produce in proximity to the point where the farmlands are expected to be first inundated, to about 5 m — 20 m away depending on the terrain of the farmland from the anticipated starting point.

    The fundamental reason for employing this strategy is that in the eventuality of not being opportune to return to the farmland within the next 4—5 days, the floodwaters will not get to the point where they temporarily stopped harvesting. Insufficient household workforce is also a crucial determinant of the extent to which farmers temporarily stop harvesting. This is because some farmers may have about five plots of farmlands in different locations within the community where they planted cassava on.

    Focus group discussions FGDs and semi-structured interviews advanced the use of the AVAF, which included Venn or institutional diagrams, transect walks, brainstorming, community risk mapping and historical timelines. The study comprised 35 FGDs and four one-to-one semi-structured interviews two in Olomoro, one in Igbide and one in Uzere conducted between June and October and July see Table 3. Each FGD was made up of 3—12 participants between the ages of 20 and The age criterion was hinged on the fact that only adults could participate in the study because of the conditions of the approved ethical clearance.

    Eligible participants were identified by the help of key informants who have been residing in each of the communities for over 20 years, and an agricultural extension officer in ISLGA. Specific criteria used to select eligible participants for the study included those who have been farming in each of the study areas for a minimum of 10 years, as they are likely to have a vast wealth of experience regarding the ways climatic and non-climatic stressors impact negatively on food production.

    Others include gender, those whose household assets and livelihoods were adversely affected by the flood disaster, those who cultivate predominantly on low-lying farmlands and willingness to participate in the study. The qualitative data were analysed using the content thematic analysis technique. The degradation of natural capital as well as the erosion of financial, human and physical capitals have made food production an uphill task in the study areas.

    For instance, a participant explained:. We must harvest all our produce before our farmland becomes inundated. This usually exacerbates food insecurity when a household gets a poor harvest in a particular season … This is the advantage farmers in neighbouring communities, who cultivate on high ground, have over us. In this regard, a participant commented:. Today, the garri produced in Olomoro has virtually no significant starch content. Along this continuum, a participant lamented:. Up till today, no remedial action has been carried in this community.

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    However, not all participants were in total agreement with this line of thought. For example, a participant explained:. Within the last two decades, however, the demand for arable farmlands has witnessed an abrupt increase. This is due to the sporadic increase in birth rate whereby it has become usual for a year-old boy to have a partner and child. Consequently, the father of the year-old boy has no choice but to give a piece of land to his son to enable him and his partner grow their food.

    This has made it almost impossible for some farmers to practice bush fallowing.

    In the context of financial capital, the participants lamented that irregularities and inconsistencies surrounded the disbursement of farm loans. All but one farmer, for example, claimed that they have never been beneficiaries of any agricultural loans. The only beneficiaries of farm loans are relatives of those working in the office responsible for disbursing farm loans. The painful part is that these relatives usually hoard the information to themselves during the loan distribution processes. A few explained that this has become a regular occurrence for some women in the community with their husbands as the chief perpetrators.

    When probed about the role of the police in attempting to cushion the plight of the women, a participant explained:.